Caused by a birth defect and occurs in only 1/10000 newborns. Individuals that have congenital scoliosis may have other underlying health problems such as kidney or bladder issues. There are four different types of congenital scoliosis: incomplete formation of vertebrae, failure of separation of vertebrae, a combination of bars and hemivertibrae, and compensatory curves.
Caused by disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and muscular system. This is frequently seen in individuals with spina bifida, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, or paralysis. Neuromuscular scoliosis causes the nerves and muscles to be unable to maintain proper balance.
Is unique because it is adult onset scoliosis, compared to the other types which mostly occur in children. This is caused by degeneration of the facet joints, making them shift the spine to the side. The spine may also be affected by osteoporosis, compression fractures, and disc degeneration. This type is frequent in individuals over the age of 65.
This type is the most common form of scoliosis, over 80% of all scoliosis cases, and usually affects children between the ages of 10 to 18. Idiopathic scoliosis is more common in adolescent girls. This curves progress as the child ages and slow down when they hit maturity. For more severe cases, this with a curve over 50 degrees, it is likely their curve will progress even after they’ve hit maturity. Unfortunately, the cause of idiopathic scoliosis is unknown. There are many different theories and assumptions behind the condition such as being genetic but researchers have yet to find any of them conclusive.